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巖石標本保護方法
文章來源:http://www.241950.live/ 仁和智華地質標本

 運用物理和化學的方法,對礦物、巖石、礦產標本進行保護.常用方法有密封容器保護法、真空容器保護法、滲透保護法、薄膜保護法、包埋保護法等.

密封容器保護法主要用于保護那些易揮發、蒸發和粉末狀的巖礦標本,如自然汞、石油、天然鹵水、各種粉末狀礦砂等.容器主要為玻璃質制品、開口處用蠟、凡士林及其他物質密封.
真空容器保護法主要用于保護那些易潮解、溶解、水化、氧化而遭受破壞的巖礦標本,如鉀石鹽、石鹽、鈉硝石、天然堿、芒硝、黃鐵礦等.容器為玻璃質制品,使用時用真空泵將其抽成真空.
滲透保護法主要用于保護那些松散、易掉粉末的巖礦標本,如高嶺土、膨潤土、硅藻土、礬類礦物、煤、輝鉬礦、雄黃、雌黃等.常用的試劑有丙烯酸乳液 1號、2 號,聚醋酸乙烯酯乳液、甲基丙烯酸甲酯粗單體.具體方法是將標本較長時間地浸泡在用這些試劑制成的溶液中,從里到外對標本進行粘補、加固,然后取出烘干.
薄膜保護法主要用于保護那些致密塊狀、孔隙度小的巖礦標本,如各種硫化物,含硫鹽、含氧鹽、橄欖巖、金伯利巖等.常用試劑為甲基丙烯酸甲酯預聚物、丙烯酸清漆3號、丙烯酸清漆6號,還需在試劑中加入適量的抗氧劑及紫外線吸收劑.具體方法是將巖礦標本浸泡在已配制的試劑里,一定時間后取出烘干,或將試劑直接涂在標本上,使標本表面形成一層無色透明的薄膜,以此防止標本氧化、潮解,達到保護的目的.
包埋保護法主要用于保護那些在大氣、紫外線等因素的作用下,顏色和光澤等易發生變化和失真、易損壞變質的巖礦標本,如黃銅礦、斑銅礦、辰砂、輝銻礦、雄黃、雌黃、孔雀石、藍銅礦等.常用試劑為甲基丙烯酸甲酯預聚物和紫外線吸收劑.具體方法是將巖礦標本包埋于試劑中,經過抽真空、加溫聚合,遂形成透明固體,以此達到保護標本的目的.在包埋時要放入文字說明,以備查尋、識別和陳列時使用.這種方法不僅可以長期保護巖礦標本,而且包埋之后具有色彩鮮艷、透明度好、外形美觀、堅固耐用、攜帶方便等優點。In this paper, the physical and chemical methods are used to protect minerals, rocks and mineral samples. The common methods include sealed vessel protection, vacuum vessel protection, permeability protection, membrane protection, embedding protection, etc
 
The sealed container protection method is mainly used to protect the volatile, evaporated and powdered rock and mineral samples, such as natural mercury, oil, natural brine, various powdered ore, etc. the containers are mainly glass products, and the openings are sealed with wax, vaseline and other substances
 
The vacuum vessel protection method is mainly used to protect the rock and mineral samples that are easy to be deliquesced, dissolved, hydrated and oxidized, such as sylvite, halite, sodium nitrate, natural alkali, mirabilite, pyrite, etc. the vessel is a glass product, which is vacuumized by a vacuum pump during use
 
Osmotic protection is mainly used to protect loose and easily powdered rock and mineral samples, such as kaolin, bentonite, diatomite, alum minerals, coal, molybdenite, realgar, realgar, etc. commonly used reagents include acrylic emulsion 1, 2, polyvinyl acetate emulsion, and methyl methacrylate methyl monomer. In the liquid, the specimen is pasted and reinforced from inside to outside, and then taken out for drying
 
The film protection method is mainly used to protect those rock and mineral samples with dense block and small porosity, such as various sulfides, sulfur salts, oxysalts, peridotites, kimberlites, etc. the commonly used reagents are methyl methacrylate prepolymer, acrylic varnish No Take out and dry the prepared reagent after a certain period of time, or apply the reagent directly on the specimen to form a colorless and transparent film on the specimen surface, so as to prevent specimen from oxidation and deliquescence and achieve the purpose of protection
 
The embedding protection method is mainly used to protect those rock and mineral samples which are easy to change and distort in color and luster under the action of atmosphere, ultraviolet and other factors, such as chalcopyrite, bornite, cinnabar, stibnite, realgar, orpiment, malachite, chalcopyrite, etc. the common reagents are methyl methacrylate prepolymer and ultraviolet absorber. The specific method is to pack the rock and mineral samples Buried in reagent, after vacuumizing and heating polymerization, transparent solid is formed to protect specimen. When embedding, written description should be put in for searching, identifying and listing. This method can not only protect rock and mineral specimen for a long time, but also has the advantages of bright color, good transparency, beautiful appearance, firmness, durability and portability after embedding
 
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